This folder contains reports from numerous Jewish Democratic Committees across the country regarding elections, activities, and other matters. Cities in Transylvania include Sibiu and Timișoara. Reports from Constanța mention cultural work done by and for the Bukovina Jews returned from Transnistria (now in Constanța).
The Jewish Communities of Romania Collection (sometimes also described by the Romanian National Archives as the Documents Collection of the Jewish Communities of Romania) contains documents created and received by Jewish communities and organizations functioning in Romania from the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century.
The documents until World War II are composed of a variety of items reflecting community life, including statutes, correspondence, reports, and membership lists. Documents from the World War II period generally address the plight of Romanian Jews during this period. This material includes reports on persecutions and expropriations, correspondence and other documents related to deportees, and emigration paperwork. The post-World War II material generally deals with the repatriation of Jewish deportees to the Romanian-organized camps in Transnistria, the welfare of survivors, emigration, and the activities of the Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania and of the Jewish Democratic Committee (communist Jewish organization). For the complete inventory list of the collection, please see this link (in Romanian only): http://www.arhivelenationale.ro/images/custom/image/Pdf-uri/DANIC_Fonduri%20si%20colectii/Feudale/Colectia%20comunitati%20evreiesti%201818-1959.pdf
JBAT archivists surveyed folders containing material related specifically to Bukovina and Transylvania. For details on the contents of these folders, please see the list below and click on any link.
The collection includes the paperwork and material collected by the Sibiu county Securitate (Romanian Communist Secret Police) offices under communism. There are several folders with material related to control or surveillance of unnamed religious groups, but no folders have titles specifically dealing with the Jewish population or religion. At the time of the JBAT survey (2015), the inventory for this collection was accessible only at the physical location of the CNSAS and only in digital form on the computers of the CNSAS reading room. The inventory provided no indication as to the linear extent of the collection and gave no additional details as to its history, content, or the number of pages in individual folders.
The relevant portion of this collection are the indices and registers (1853-1861) of the Imperial County Office of Sibiu. Indices are arranged alphabetically by name of individual or organization, or in some cases by topic. Registers are arranged in approximate chronological order. As such, one typically can find relevant entries by searching for words like “Juden” or “Israeliten” (Jews), or by the names of individual members of the Jewish community. The indexes and registers further provide a short summary of the case or document, along with the case or document number. The registers typically provide a fuller summary and often provide the date of opening of the case, and the date of resolution, as well as a short description of the resolution. In some cases, the documents may be preserved, and may be requested by the document numbers recorded in the registers and indices, although not all documents are still extant. In addition to the indices and registers which comprise the bulk of the collection, there are also indices for circulars and various orders (1852-1856), a register of recruits (1861), and registers and indices for local offices: Sibiu (1853-1854), Orlat (1856-1860), Cisnădie (1853-1854), and Săliște (1851-1854).
This collection consists of registers of “allodial” accounts, both incomes and expenses. Allodial in the context of Sibiu and the Saxon region in general, the Fundus Regius, appears to denote lands and assets which were managed collectively, at least by members of the Saxon University, rather than being the property of individual feudal lords or noblemen, as was more typically the case in the Transylvanian counties (Comitates). As such, these registers concern expense accounts pertaining broadly both to Sibiu as a whole, as well as the Seven Chairs administrative district administered by the Saxon University. These registers appear to record incomes and expenses arising from taxation, administrative expenses relating to the municipal and regional government, and expenses for social and cultural programs such as assistance to needy residents and support for state theaters. These registers are closely related to similar expense and income registers kept by individual public officials, such as the Stadthann, which are listed on the separate inventory 210, Socoteli economice. Registers of municipal Consular expenses and incomes are found in inventory 207, and customs incomes and expenses, in particular for the tollhouse at Turnu Roșu, can be found in inventory 197. As the collection is quite extensive, it was not possible during the survey to get a comprehensive overview of the entire collection, but nonetheless some of the taxation registers do show evidence of Jewish taxpayers, see for example the register entitled Casierie de impozit nr. 152. This ledger divides heads of household into three broad categories: Citizens (Bürger, Freedmen (Libertinen), and Tenants (Inquilinen). Members of the local Jewish community, such as Markus and Mendel Klärmann and Simon Horovitz, do appear in this register, primarily in the “Libertinen” category, although interestingly Markus Klärmann appears both as a Bürger and as a Libertine. The name of the head of household is accompanied by a house number, and then followed by columns enumerating the taxes which they are due to pay.
This is a small collection of minute books relating to debts and debt collection, containing evidence of at least one case involving a Jew, although it is possible that there are more cases registered. See număr curent 3: the first page of an inserted group of papers (marked page 99) appears to involve some Jewish individuals from Făgăraș. Indeed, these cases concern individuals and businesses not just in Sibiu or the Sibiu district, but sometimes from as far away as Vienna.
This collection consists of registers and a few other documents containing decisions relating to small claims between city and district residents. A comprehensive survey was beyond the scope of the present project, but it is likely that some of the records contain information regarding Jewish inhabitants in the region.
This collection consists of ledgers and indices of regulatory measures enacted by the Sibiu Magistrate. The materials on this collection date largely to the 18th and early 19th century, thus covering a period before substantial Jewish settlement in the jurisdiction, although item number 4 did turn up evidence of an 1829 decision pertaining to Jews and pharmaceuticals. It is possible other relevant cases may be recorded in these registers as well; a thorough investigation of the contents was beyond the scope of the present survey. See page 689/80 of nr. crt. 4, containing a decree from 1829 September 10, stating that Jews are permitted neither to trade in pharmaceuticals nor to operate pharmacies, and that any pharmaceuticals discovered to have been “defiled” [verfault] by Jews are to be reported immediately to the authorities.
This is a small collection, mostly containing various orders, reports, and other business and administrative papers regarding the daily activities of the post. Several of the items specifically refer to measures regarding the Saxons living near the post, their involvement with German forces, and their deportation to work camps. A folder of correspondence (numar curent 1947-1) mentions Jews, but only to note that there appear to be no Jews in the area. The remaining documents in this folder consist of correspondence, primarily orders and circular bulletins sent to the Pauca gendarmerie post, concerning various tasks and activities to be undertaken. Often these have to do with agricultural matters, and there are also a number of notices about wanted individuals, escapees from detention, and measures regarding the ethnic German and Magyar populations. What is, however, of note is that much of this correspondence is written on recycled paper – for the most part, the versos of the orders are Hungarian-language documents dating to the late Austro-Hungarian monarchy, especially to the first World War.