This folder contains reports from numerous Jewish Democratic Committees across the country regarding elections, activities, and other matters. Cities in Transylvania include Sibiu and Timișoara. Reports from Constanța mention cultural work done by and for the Bukovina Jews returned from Transnistria (now in Constanța).
The Jewish Communities of Romania Collection (sometimes also described by the Romanian National Archives as the Documents Collection of the Jewish Communities of Romania) contains documents created and received by Jewish communities and organizations functioning in Romania from the 19th century to the first half of the 20th century.
The documents until World War II are composed of a variety of items reflecting community life, including statutes, correspondence, reports, and membership lists. Documents from the World War II period generally address the plight of Romanian Jews during this period. This material includes reports on persecutions and expropriations, correspondence and other documents related to deportees, and emigration paperwork. The post-World War II material generally deals with the repatriation of Jewish deportees to the Romanian-organized camps in Transnistria, the welfare of survivors, emigration, and the activities of the Federation of Jewish Communities in Romania and of the Jewish Democratic Committee (communist Jewish organization). For the complete inventory list of the collection, please see this link (in Romanian only).
JBAT archivists surveyed folders containing material related specifically to Bukovina and Transylvania. For details on the contents of these folders, please see the list below and click on any link.
The collection includes the paperwork and material collected by the Sibiu county Securitate (Romanian Communist Secret Police) offices under communism. There are several folders with material related to control or surveillance of unnamed religious groups, but no folders have titles specifically dealing with the Jewish population or religion. At the time of the JBAT survey (2015), the inventory for this collection was accessible only at the physical location of the CNSAS and only in digital form on the computers of the CNSAS reading room. The inventory provided no indication as to the linear extent of the collection and gave no additional details as to its history, content, or the number of pages in individual folders.
The relevant portion of this collection are the indices and registers (1853-1861) of the Imperial County Office of Sibiu. Indices are arranged alphabetically by name of individual or organization, or in some cases by topic. Registers are arranged in approximate chronological order. As such, one typically can find relevant entries by searching for words like “Juden” or “Israeliten” (Jews), or by the names of individual members of the Jewish community. The indexes and registers further provide a short summary of the case or document, along with the case or document number. The registers typically provide a fuller summary and often provide the date of opening of the case, and the date of resolution, as well as a short description of the resolution. In some cases, the documents may be preserved, and may be requested by the document numbers recorded in the registers and indices, although not all documents are still extant. In addition to the indices and registers which comprise the bulk of the collection, there are also indices for circulars and various orders (1852-1856), a register of recruits (1861), and registers and indices for local offices: Sibiu (1853-1854), Orlat (1856-1860), Cisnădie (1853-1854), and Săliște (1851-1854).
This collection consists of registers of “allodial” accounts, both incomes and expenses. Allodial in the context of Sibiu and the Saxon region in general, the Fundus Regius, appears to denote lands and assets which were managed collectively, at least by members of the Saxon University, rather than being the property of individual feudal lords or noblemen, as was more typically the case in the Transylvanian counties (Comitates). As such, these registers concern expense accounts pertaining broadly both to Sibiu as a whole, as well as the Seven Chairs administrative district administered by the Saxon University. These registers appear to record incomes and expenses arising from taxation, administrative expenses relating to the municipal and regional government, and expenses for social and cultural programs such as assistance to needy residents and support for state theaters. These registers are closely related to similar expense and income registers kept by individual public officials, such as the Stadthann, which are listed on the separate inventory 210, Socoteli economice. Registers of municipal Consular expenses and incomes are found in inventory 207, and customs incomes and expenses, in particular for the tollhouse at Turnu Roșu, can be found in inventory 197. As the collection is quite extensive, it was not possible during the survey to get a comprehensive overview of the entire collection, but nonetheless some of the taxation registers do show evidence of Jewish taxpayers, see for example the register entitled Casierie de impozit nr. 152. This ledger divides heads of household into three broad categories: Citizens (Bürger, Freedmen (Libertinen), and Tenants (Inquilinen). Members of the local Jewish community, such as Markus and Mendel Klärmann and Simon Horovitz, do appear in this register, primarily in the “Libertinen” category, although interestingly Markus Klärmann appears both as a Bürger and as a Libertine. The name of the head of household is accompanied by a house number, and then followed by columns enumerating the taxes which they are due to pay.
This is a small collection of minute books relating to debts and debt collection, containing evidence of at least one case involving a Jew, although it is possible that there are more cases registered. See număr curent 3: the first page of an inserted group of papers (marked page 99) appears to involve some Jewish individuals from Făgăraș. Indeed, these cases concern individuals and businesses not just in Sibiu or the Sibiu district, but sometimes from as far away as Vienna.
This collection consists of registers and a few other documents containing decisions relating to small claims between city and district residents. A comprehensive survey was beyond the scope of the present project, but it is likely that some of the records contain information regarding Jewish inhabitants in the region.
This collection consists of ledgers and indices of regulatory measures enacted by the Sibiu Magistrate. The materials on this collection date largely to the 18th and early 19th century, thus covering a period before substantial Jewish settlement in the jurisdiction, although item number 4 did turn up evidence of an 1829 decision pertaining to Jews and pharmaceuticals. It is possible other relevant cases may be recorded in these registers as well; a thorough investigation of the contents was beyond the scope of the present survey. See page 689/80 of nr. crt. 4, containing a decree from 1829 September 10, stating that Jews are permitted neither to trade in pharmaceuticals nor to operate pharmacies, and that any pharmaceuticals discovered to have been “defiled” [verfault] by Jews are to be reported immediately to the authorities.
This is a small collection, mostly containing various orders, reports, and other business and administrative papers regarding the daily activities of the post. Several of the items specifically refer to measures regarding the Saxons living near the post, their involvement with German forces, and their deportation to work camps. A folder of correspondence (numar curent 1947-1) mentions Jews, but only to note that there appear to be no Jews in the area. The remaining documents in this folder consist of correspondence, primarily orders and circular bulletins sent to the Pauca gendarmerie post, concerning various tasks and activities to be undertaken. Often these have to do with agricultural matters, and there are also a number of notices about wanted individuals, escapees from detention, and measures regarding the ethnic German and Magyar populations. What is, however, of note is that much of this correspondence is written on recycled paper – for the most part, the versos of the orders are Hungarian-language documents dating to the late Austro-Hungarian monarchy, especially to the first World War.
This is a rather small collection, more or less cataloged at an item level, consisting primarily of enrollment requests in the form of handwritten letters for business training schools and courses throughout the Sibiu district. It appears that there were several small schools and evening course offerings, even in some smaller localities and villages. There are also some administrative papers, such as lists of students and reports. At least one enrollment request, item 141 of 1910, testifies to the enrollment of a Jewish student in these schools and coursework. This item is a request by the factory owner Heim Schublach of Sibiu for the enrollment of his daughter Hermine Schublach, as well as for the enrollment of Ilona Kimpel of Turda, in a course. It does not specify which factory Schublach owned.
This collection consists of various account ledger books for different businesses and organizations in Sibiu's jurisdiction. There is no clear relationship between the ledgers, and often very little information about their creators or their context. Since many of the ledgers date to the late 18th and early 19th century, a period before substantial Jewish settlement in the region, archivists only selectively surveyed this collection. A single mention of a Jew was found in one ledger, although it is possible that additional ledgers in the collection could contain more information on local Jewish history. The aforementioned ledger (număr curent 35), ascribed to Johann Roth, consists of an alphabetical index of client names, and then the bulk of the book consists of accounts payable and receivable entries for these various individual and corporate clients. In a shorter section between the index and accounts sections, entitled “Month of October,” there is an entry for Israel Löwy in Alba Iulia (Carlsburg), in the matter of an inheritance – see page 27 (page seven in the book's original numbering).
The collection consists of statutes, membership lists, meeting minutes, correspondence, and other papers from the offices of the German Theater Association of Transylvania (Hauptverein für das deutsche Theater in Siebenbürgen), founded in Sibiu in 1922, and led by Dr. Iulius Bielz. Although there is no evidence of Jewish involvement, this collection does shed light on the increasingly German nationalist orientation of the Transylvanian Saxon community during the interwar period. See, for example, număr curent 11, a performance repertory. There are some materials regarding the performance of a play by Fritz Heinz Reimesch, a Saxon living in Germany; these materials often use words such as “Volksdeutsche” and “Volksgenosse,” and the play is a nationalistic affair about the defense of Hermannstadt by the Nachbarschaften (Saxon neighborhood organizations), set in the past. Elsewhere the director of the organization pleads for assistance in setting up theatrical events for the Swabians of Banat, as this region is being threatened with greater Romanianization; a representative of the Sighișoara branch mentions theatergoers “of other nationalities,” but says that they are few.
This is a register of marriages in the Sibiu district, not specific to any religious confession. Accordingly, most, if not all, religions in the district are represented, including a considerable number of mixed-confession marriages, although at least half of the marriages appear to be between members of the same faith. A handful of marriages involving Jewish individuals are entered, including at least one interfaith marriage (see pages 113, 163, 241, 497, 505, and 577). Date of entry and of marriage are listed, along with the names, birth dates, addresses, and professions of the bride and groom, as well as the names (including mother's maiden name), professions, and places of residence of the witnesses and the parents of the bride and groom.
This death register lists name, profession, age or birthdate, and birthplaces of deceased, as well as date and place of death, date and place of burial, and name and profession of father. A handful of death certificates (1874-1885) are interleaved into the register after the last entry, but the register itself contains entries for the years 1886-1895. Some entries for smaller localities in the area surrounding Sibiu are also present. Although the register is printed in Hungarian, for the first several pages, entries are written in German; thereafter, however, the entries switch to Hungarian.
This death register lists name, profession, age or birthdate, and birthplaces of deceased, as well as date and place of death, and date and place of burial. A handful of papers, including additional death certificates and requests for certificates, corrections and amendments, are interleaved, including one item from 1940. Although most of the register entries are in German, some of the later entries are in Hungarian, and there are a couple of Romanian items interleaved. An unusually high percentage of the deaths in 1881-1882 are recorded at the Sibiu insane asylum (Irrenanstalt).
This marriage register lists the name, birthdate, profession, and residence of the bride and groom, along with the names, professions, and residences of their father. Date and location of wedding is also provided, along with the names of witnesses and of the officiating rabbi. A couple of requests dating to the 1930s and 1940s for the issue of marriage certificate are interleaved. Some of the weddings registered took place in nearby villages or towns, such as Alțâna and Sebeș.
This marriage register lists name, age, birthplace, address, and profession of the bride and groom, as well as the names and residence of their parents, the date and location of the wedding, the names of witnesses, and the name of the officiating rabbi. A couple of other items are interleaved, including a request for a confirmation of a birthdate and a list of community members, providing their names, addresses, and professions.
This birth register is arranged in approximate chronological order. Each entry lists the name of the child, date of birth, name of parents (usually with the maiden name of the mother), address of parents, date of circumcision or naming, name of mohel and of witnesses or godparents. Occasionally a Hebrew name is also listed for the child. Many pages, especially the first several from 1886-1887, are in poor condition and are in many cases missing sections. The register is fairly continuous until about 1902, and thereafter there are scattered entries until 1924. Between the back page and the cover are inserted two death certificates from 1938 with accompanying requests to annotate the birth register. Although the majority of entries are for births in Sibiu, a considerable number of births in Sebeș is also recorded, as well as some births in smaller localities near Sibiu.
This birth register is arranged in approximate chronological order. Each entry lists the name of the child, date of birth, name of parents (usually with the maiden name of the mother), address of parents, date of circumcision or naming, name of mohel and of witnesses or godparents. Occasionally a Hebrew name is also listed for the child. Although the majority of entries are for Sibiu, births are also in isolated cases recorded for other localities, such as: Alțâna, Sebeș, Nocrich, Mediaș, Cisnădie, Chirpăr. Several additional items are inserted into the register, including requests for amendments to the register. Notably, a substantial number of notifications about the conversions of individuals from Judaism to various Christian denominations during the late 1930s are also interleaved. It is also notable that most of the individuals listed on these conversion notifications were born in the early 20th century, therefore after the period during which this birth register was kept. Along with these conversion notifications is also interleaved a handwritten register of births since 1895, which provides the name of the child and the name of the parents in Hebrew, occasionally with additional information in Hebrew. Although this specific register is undated, handwritten date annotations seem to indicate it was created sometime after 1929.
Birth register arranged in approximate chronological order. Each entry lists the name of the child, date of birth, name of parents (sometimes with the maiden name of the mother), address of parents, date of circumcision or naming, name of mohel (circumciser) and of witnesses or godparents. Occasionally a Hebrew name is also listed for the child, although the overwhelming majority of entries do not provide a Hebrew name.
This collection contains birth, death, and marriage records for approximately 142 locations throughout the pre-World War II boundaries of Sibiu county. For details as to the records for Jewish communities, click on any title in the list below.